Today in 5-minute refresher lectures I will be discussing coeliac diseases. Always follow your local guidelines and seek specialist advice. This lecture is only intended as a brief overview.

 

VIDEO WILL BE ADDED SHORTLY

Coeliac disease is a systemic autoimmune disease primarily affecting the small intestine that occurs in people who are genetically predisposed.

Upon exposure to gluten, an abnormal immune response may lead to the production of several different autoantibodies that can affect a number of different organs.

Coeliac Path

Coeliac HistoCoeliac Histo

The genetics of coeliac disease is very complicated. The two main genes are HLA class II, HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1. Different combinations alter the risk for developing CD. However, genome wide association studies has identified 39 non HLA loci that are associated with CD. The heritability of CD (proportion of the risk of CD attributed to genetic factors) is only 87%, Indicating there are environmental factors at play.

HLA DQ2/DQ8 Genotype
Risk
DQ2+DQ8
1:7 (14.3%)
DQ2+DQ2
1:10 (10%)
DQ8+DQ8 
1:12 (8.4%) 
DQ8+DQB1*02
1:24 (4.2%)
Homozygous DQB1*02
1:26 (3.8%)
DQ2 alone
1:35 (2.9%)
DQ8 alone
1:89 (1.1%)
Population risk
1:100 (1%)
½ DQ2: DQB1*02
1:210 (0.5%)
½ DQ2: DQA1*05
1:1842 (0.05%)
No HLA-DQA/DQB celiac susceptibility alleles
1:2518 (<0.04%)

Megiorni F et al HLA-DQ and risk gradient for celiac disease. Hum Immunol. 2009;70:55–9

 

 The prevalence of DQ2/DQ8 genes in the population is 1:3 and the likelihood of an effected person to develop CD 1:30. Since the DQ2 loci can be divided on two chromosomes or combined on a single chromosome, the inheritance pattern of CD can be both autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive.

Let’s say you have a patient in your practise with a family history of CD, what would be the likelihood the patient has CD themselves. (their HLA is not known yet). Their risk is 5-20%  (Fasano et al 2003, Treem 2004).

Genetic testing is useful for excluding CD, but with only a 1:30 penetrance does not prove CD. Most people with CD have positive coeliac serology with detectable auto-antibodies. Gastroscopy with duodenal biopsies is the “gold-standard” for diagnosis but is not always needed. For instance, if your patient has coeliac positive coeliac serology and symptoms resolve with excluding gluten. Often people with coeliac disease are unable to tolerate the daily gluten for 2 weeks and without gluten exposure the endoscopy will be normal.

Symptoms can include fatigue, depression, diarrhoea and abdominal pains. However almost all systems can be affected skin, cardiovascular, endocrine, neurological, metabolic, renal and rheumatological.

There is an increased cancer risk with coeliac disease. Therefore, it is important for patients to go on a strict gluten free diet even if the patient asymptomatic. A dietician review is very helpful. Compliance can be monitored with repeat coeliac serology after 6-12 months.

5 out of 5 stars
posted 6 months ago

Dr Marius has been my lifesaver in terms of some serious pain I was getting in my stomach. He diagnosed what was happening very quickly based on my symptoms and case and he organised treatment for me straight away resulting in instant pain relief. A doctor that genuinely cares with a lot of expertise and goes above and beyond! Thank you so much Marius.

5 out of 5 stars
posted 8 months ago

An absolutely awesome consultant, with an excellent and genuine concern for patient care. I consider myself extremely fortunately to have been referred under his professional care and his treatment, has genuinely improved my quality of life. By far the most supportive and expert gastroenterologist that I have ever had the pleasure of meeting. Thank you for your continued support.

5 out of 5 stars
posted 2 years ago

Dr Marius. I am writing to express my appreciation for all that Dr Marius has been able to do so i have been able to avoid major surgery. I have adenocarcinoma,(cancer in the duodenum). I was offered an extremely invasive operation called Whipple. This involves extensive cutting and rejoining of the liver pancreas and gall bladder with all its aftermath and infection risks. I chose not to have this as i preferred to have quality of life rather than longevity. Sadly i have been up close to...

5 out of 5 stars
posted a year ago

My son Liam has been under the care of Marius for most of this year with some complex issues which are now resolved. Marius was extremely knowledgeable and professional in his care throughout this process, while offering a kind and empathetic approach to both myself and Liam . I would thoroughly recommend him to anyone seeking the services of a Gastroenterologist.

5 out of 5 stars
posted 2 months ago

Dear Reader I have had experience of my stomach chronic infection by HP. My GP has not give me treatment after I have done gastroscopy while I have moderate symptoms. I call Dr Marius clinic, his nurse was realized my situation and contacted Dr Marius. I had phone consultation with Dr Marius. I got my medications to treat stomach infection. That happened just in three weeks ago. I am feeling better now. That is impressive experience and I do appreciate Dr Marius give me the right treatment and...